ancient Hebrews imagined the universe as a
three-tiered cosmos of heaven, Earth, and underworld.
Heaven was reserved for God and the angels; living
human beings occupied the middle world; and the
spirits of the dead resided beneath the Earth in "She'ol."
The only stories in Hebrew scriptures, besides Daniel,
that refer to afterlife notions are the story of
Elijah's bodily ascent to heaven. Malachi describes
reincarnation of Elijah as one of the signs
of the Messiah's arrival. Indeed, it is reasonably
certain that reincarnation was not an alien concept
to the Hebrews. An orthodox sect of Judaism, called
Hasidic Judaism, professes a belief in reincarnation.
Also, ancient Jewish mysticism taught the reality
of reincarnation in the
Kabbalah. In contemporary Judaism, the orthodox
embraced the doctrine of resurrection, while the
non-orthodox often accepted the notion of an immortal
soul. Many secular and
Reform Jews view themselves as part of the tradition
of Judaism, without adhering to any sort of afterlife